Saturday, June 2, 2018

Obama Officials Spied on Trump Campaign Using at Least Five Methods

| Donald Trump | Barack Obama | spying

By Jasper Fakkert

During the heat of the 2016 presidential elections, officials within the Obama administration, including cabinet-level officials who answered to Obama directly, extensively spied on the campaign of then-candidate Donald Trump.
Both the Department of Justice inspector general and the House intelligence committee are currently probing the actions of the Obama officials and their motivations.
So far, at least five different ways that the officials spied on the Trump campaign have been uncovered.
These include the use of national security letters, a FISA warrant, an undercover informant, the unmasking of identities in intelligence reports, and spying conducted by foreign intelligence agencies.
Each of these methods provided the officials with sensitive information on the Trump campaign that could have been used for political purposes.
Private communications between FBI officials involved in the agency’s investigation on the Trump campaign, reveal its links to the White House.
In one of the text messages obtained by the DOJ inspector general, and since released publicly, the lead FBI agent on the case, Peter Strzok, wrote in a Sept. 2, 2016, message to FBI lawyer Lisa Page that “potus [president of the United States] wants to know everything we’re doing.” Page was serving as counsel to then-Deputy FBI Director Andrew McCabe.
There have also been direct ties between the spying and the campaign of then-Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.
The FBI and DOJ relied heavily on unverified allegations contained in the so-called Trump dossier, paid for by the Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee (DNC), to obtain a FISA warrant to spy on Trump campaign volunteer Carter Page.

1. National Security Letters

The FBI, which at the time was headed by FBI Director James Comey and Deputy Director McCabe, used counterintelligence tools known as national security letters to spy on the Trump campaign.
Marc Ruskin, a 27-year veteran of the FBI, told The Epoch Times that the agency has strict guidelines regulating the use of different types of investigations, such as national security, criminal, and terrorism investigations. Launching a foreign counterintelligence investigation (FCI), which falls under the FBI’s national security guidelines, must meet a lower bar of probable cause than do criminal investigations.
Using an FCI to investigate the Trump campaign, the FBI was able to gather intelligence—not necessarily evidence—which it would likely not have been able to do using a criminal investigation, given the lack of probable cause.
However, the FBI appears to have used the FCI tools—potentially illegally—to launch a subsequent criminal investigation.
Comey told Congress under oath in June 2017 that the investigation did not target Trump, even though it had spied on his campaign.
Similarly, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, who oversees the investigation by special counsel Robert Mueller, said in April that Trump is not a target of Mueller’s investigation.

2. FISA Warrant

The FBI and DOJ obtained a FISA spy warrant on Carter Page, a volunteer adviser to the Trump campaign, on Oct. 21, 2016. Under the so-called “two-hop” rule, the FISA warrant could have been used to spy on anyone with two layers of separation from Page himself. This means that both of the people Page was in contact with himself at the campaign could have had their communications surveilled, which is the first hop, as well as anyone who was in contact with the campaign officials, the second hop.
This means that even though Carter Page never talked to Trump himself, as said by Page in a Feb. 6 ABC News interview, Trump could still be spied on, because Page had contact with one of his campaign officials.
Because Page is a U.S. citizen, the application had to be certified by the FBI director or deputy director. Comey signed off on three of the applications, which include renewals, and McCabe signed one.
Deputy attorney generals Sally Yates, Dana Boente, and Rosenstein each signed one or more applications on behalf of the DOJ.
A FISA warrant is among the most intrusive ways to spy on an individual. It includes access to data collected under Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.
This data includes all digital communications—such as internet browsing histories, phone conversations, emails, chat logs, personal images, and GPS locations—that are transferred over the internet and captured by the NSA using so-called upstream data, which is all internet data traveling through key internet backbone carriers.
The FBI itself has access to 702 collected data collected by the NSA. A declassified top-secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) report released in April 2017 detailed numerous violations by the FBI in handling this data.
Among the violations were the FBI’s providing of access to raw FISA data to private contractors, in violation of policies intended to safeguard the data. The contractors were also found to have maintained access to the sensitive data, which includes communications of Americans, after the contractors’ work for the FBI was concluded.
The FBI also provided 702 data to a private entity that did not have the legal right to it. According to the FISC, the FBI also did not give oversight or supervision on how the data was used. It is unclear which private entity the FBI provided the information to.
It is unclear at this point in time whether the communications of Trump and his campaign were provided to outside private entities.
In addition to the FBI’s mishandling of Section 702-acquired data, the declassified FISC report shows numerous violations under the Obama administration of procedures intended to safeguard Americans’ personal data and communications. For example, the NSA had an 85 percent noncompliance rate with guidelines for when it came to searches involving American citizens.

3. Unmasking

Top Obama officials made hundreds of so-called unmasking requests for the identities of members of the Trump campaign in intelligence reports.
Unmasking refers to the practice of requesting that an intelligence agency, in most cases the NSA, unmask the name of an American citizen, which by default is concealed in intelligence reports to protect identities.
Obama’s national security adviser, Susan Rice, Ambassador to the U.N. Samantha Power, and CIA Director John Brennan have so far been identified by the House intelligence committee as having filed such requests.
Power testified before the House oversight committee in October last year that even though unmasking requests were made in her name, they were in fact made by another undisclosed official.
The communications obtained by Rice and Brennan could have been provided to Obama during the daily intelligence briefings he received from them.

4. Undercover Informant

The FBI used an undercover agent to infiltrate the Trump campaign.
Stefan Halper, a Cambridge professor with ties to the CIA and British intelligence agency MI6, reached out to Carter Page; George Papadopoulos, a volunteer foreign policy adviser to the Trump campaign; and Sam Clovis, a senior Trump campaign official.
Halper received over $1 million from a Defense Department think tank between 2012 and 2017.
In the same month that Halper reached out to Papadopoulos, in September 2016, the Office of Net Assessment—a strategy think thank that falls directly under the Defense Secretary, exercised an option to extend Halper’s contract for nearly $412,000. Government records show Halper’s work was marked as “special studies/analysis – foreign/national security policy.”
According to media reports, Halper met with Carter Page as early as July 2016, the same month the FBI opened its counterintelligence investigation into the Trump campaign.
On May 20, the DOJ, under the direction of Trump, ordered its inspector general to look into the actions of the FBI informant.
“If anyone did infiltrate or surveil participants in a presidential campaign for inappropriate purposes, we need to know about it and take appropriate action,” Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein said in a statement.
It expands the scope of the investigation by Inspector General Michael Horowitz, whose office is already investigating the FBI’s use of a FISA warrant to spy on the Trump campaign.

5. Foreign Intelligence

British Intelligence agency GCHQ provided officials within the CIA, both members of the “Five Eyes” intelligence alliance, information on the Trump campaign as early as late 2015, The Guardian reported.
According to the publication, then-head of GCHQ Robert Hannigan provided then-CIA Director John Brennan with sensitive information on the Trump campaign on a “director level” in the summer of 2016.
Brennan subsequently prepared an “eyes only” report for Obama and three senior aides. Brennan also provided briefings to the members of the “Gang of Eight” (the House and Senate majority and minority leaders, as well as the chairmen and ranking members on the House and Senate intelligence committees).
That GCHQ’s Hannigan provided Brennan with the information on the Trump campaign is highly unusual, as the House Intelligence Committee has found that no official Five Eyes intelligence product exists.
“We are not supposed to spy on each other’s citizens, and it’s worked well. And it continues to work well. And we know it’s working well because there was no intelligence that passed through the Five Eyes channels to our government,” Chairman of the House intelligence committee Devin Nunes told Maria Bartiromo on Sunday Morning Futures on April 22.
The Five Eyes alliance uses strict guidelines to make sure that participating intelligence agencies in the United States, UK Canada, Australia, and New Zealand don’t spy on each other’s citizens. The guidelines aim to prevent, for example, the U.S. government from using intelligence obtained by the Five Eyes to gain communications of Americans­—which the government is not allowed to monitor without a warrant.
However, Hannigan and Brennan appear to have done exactly that by circumventing official channels, thus explaining why no official intelligence product exists.
The fact that no official intelligence exists that was used to open the investigation into the alleged collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia means that those involved went around the official system.
Hannigan unexpectedly announced he was resigning from his post just three days after Trump was inaugurated.

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

The Russians Are Coming - The Groshi Is Flowing! by Steve Wingate

Steve Wingate
Political Commentator:
The Russians Are Coming - The Groshi Is Flowing!

WAR is a profitable business. I’ve always wondered who benefits from war. It's not me. It's not you. There’s no doubt it's not the men and women in uniform that return from the combat zone with bodies disfigured and emotional scars that will follow them for what is left of their lives.

It appears as though there's a new boogieman each week. This week its Saddam Hussein with his weapons of mass destruction. Then it’s Gaddafi, of whom Hillary Clinton giggled while she boasted, "We came, he saw, he died". The disgusting part is how Gaddafi was sodomized while being executed. The following week the new boogie man is North Korea. Then a few weeks later it is the Iranian government. Oh no, it's President Putin without a doubt. No, it's Assad! He's conspiring with Putin to gas the citizens of Syria after having success in winning the war against ISIS. We can go after these two men together. Two for the price of one. That’s a good deal for the American patriots that love to rally around war. Oh yes it will boost Trump’s ratings in the polls with the mid-term elections coming up. Let’s not forget too that it will also get the Mueller investigation off the front page for a few hours.

I don’t have any personal knowledge of Iraq’s gold castles designed by Saddam Hussein. Also, as expected I can’t verify that Qaddafi did all of these terrible things our government told us he did. Most Americans are still trying to figure out what is the real reason our government assured its voters that Iraq was better off without Saddam Hussein and his weapons of mass destruction. The ones of us with half of a brain are trying to understand why Syria’s president Assad would take pleasure in “gassing his own people” after winning a civil war that protected the very people that the west is accusing him of killing. What I will assume is that in all of these countries there's a robust interest in American being there so that a few elite can benefit. As long as they persuade the uninformed American voter that loyalty equals patriotism and America needs to ‘save’ these countries from their awfully wicked dictators. I cannot verify of all of those cases however there's one country under siege by America that I'm fully aware of and know the facts.

I do know personally about Ukraine and how the USA financed chaos there that has divided eastern Ukraine from the west and has separated the Russian talking populace against the Ukrainian. I lived there 6 years. I am married to a Ukrainian. I know Ukraine. My company had 70 great Ukrainian employees before we were pushed out by the Ukrainian mobsters. In the course of recent years I've observed how the western warmongers have taken advantage from the disarray that they financed there. My personal knowledge of my government’s actions in Ukraine has influenced me to question the vast majority of what my government says with regards to another boogie man is out there that we American patriots need to attack and kill.

Keep in mind, Ukraine was once known as the breadbasket of Europe. Customarily it has an educated workforce that is exceptionally cultured in the arts. Ukraine has one issue however. Many top reliable sources say that it is the MOST CORRUPT COUNTRY IN EUROPE.

Go ask my previous employer Alliant Techsystem (Kiev) who put $20,000,000.00 into Ukraine and was pushed out and more than 400 Ukrainians lost their jobs. Go ask the Swiss investors that put several million dollars into the acclaimed authentic Londonskaya Hotel on the Black Sea in Odessa, Ukraine and was pushed out. Would it be a good idea for me to say ask me in regards to our business that had 70 great Ukrainian employees and wound up getting our building taken in battling with the 5 mafia groups in our city?

In addition to the fact that Ukraine is the most corrupt country in Europe the government in Kiev has turned into a legitimate dangerous arm paid and supported by the USA to drop bombs each day on the general population of Donbass region of Ukraine. This is going on while the USA continues to send Ukrainian millions so they can continue to battle the general population of Donbass Region. To this date the USA has sent over $5,000,000,000.00 (as in billion) to Ukraine.

While McCain was recording the coup going on in the street with his cell phone with a big smile on his face several police were being clubbed, burned, beaten or shot to death in the course of the riots. Molotov cocktail was supplied to the American financed rioters and these were thrown at policemen

and anyone that stood up to their lawlessness. The American financed rioters used trucks, iron bars and a whole arsenal of potentially lethal weapons, sprays and actual guns such as hunting rifles, handguns and shotguns.

It was as bestial an affair as any of us would ever hope NOT to see. These rioters were utterly sadistic in their determination to mane and kill. Ultra-violent thugs to whom human life lost all meaning and all concepts of human decency had been long scraped from their diseased consciences. Many of these soulless sadists joined the Ukraine Armed Forces after the American financed coup and were sent east toward the pro-Russian population that they hated with a passion, those they called the Moskals.

It is not uncommon to see videos of Ukrainian children being indoctrinated in such hatred and sent to camps where they learn how to kill anyone that goes against the Nazis that push Ukrainian nationalism. Look at the Odessa atrocity where a crowd of Ukrainian nationalist attacked a pro-Russian group. They forced the pro-Russian group into a large trade union building that had many floors. The Ukrainian nationalist followed them into the building clubbing, strangling and shooting them until many of them lay dead. Then these Ukrainian nationalist retreated back outside, barring the doors closed and set the building on fire with Molotov cocktails. Many of those trapped inside tried to crawl onto the window ledges to escape the flames. They were then shot at from below. Some jumped to their deaths. Others jumped and survived only to be clubbed to death by the Ukrainian nationalist below. Although many of the images of the burned corpses are available on the Internet reaction by the western press and the American politicians were all but none. I know all of this to be true. I lived 90 miles from where this happened.

Yet in November of this past year congress voted to send $150 million more to Ukraine and then again March of this year congress voted to supply $47 million in arms to Europe’s most corrupt country Ukraine. They are supplying Ukraine 210 American-made Javelin missiles along with 37 command launch units. In addition to that the United State is spending millions on training Ukraine’s forces on how to use them.

Every time the president of Ukraine screams “The Russians are coming” “The Russians are coming” the US throws more money at the most corrupt country in Europe. The most amazing part of this is that in 2015 Kiev signed the ‘Minsk Agreement” which stipulated a ceasefire and a special constitutional status for the people of the Donbass Region. Since signing the agreement Kiev has refused to honor it by continually dropping bombs most everyday in civilian neighborhoods killing grandmothers and children. There are several videos are on YouTube showing Kiev’s army shooting up a school.

Yes. My fellow American did you know that we finance the bombs that are being dropped EVERY night on the beautiful people of the Donbass region while you and I are sleeping. Yet not a peep from the press or the western government. Sad to say but supporting war in the USA is equal to being a patriot. If war were needed – I would support it. But to finance chaos and murderous corrupt governments like I know (first hand) that is in Ukraine all while blaming it on the Russians is not too smart.

When the USA financed the overthrow of Ukraine’s democratically elected president four years ago a segment of right-wing Nazis (this is not a misprint) gained power in key positions in the Ukrainian government. New laws were passed outlawing the speaking of Russian language, etc.. Just curious what would happen here in the USA if we outlawed speaking Spanish. It would not be a pretty sight.

These new laws prompted rebellions in certain areas of Ukraine in 2 key areas. In the providence of Crimea and in the southeast region of Donbass.

It is told by our lying media and government that Ukraine is being mistreated and Putin wants to rebuild the Soviet Union again. Lets all go to WAR with Russia! Remember we are patriots and better support war or we are traitors! Two points we should consider when looking at the situation in Ukraine and our sponsoring of this corrupt country.

-Putin is the president of a country with 11 time zones. I hardly think that he has interest in corrupt Ukraine.

-Russia has had it’s Black Sea fleet in Crimea for decades and Putin did not invade the territory there and not one shot was fired to take over Crimea (as he’s being accused of). The truth is the people in Crimea saw the new American financed Nazi government in Kiev and wanted to pull their country out from under Kiev’s wing. 95% of the people of Crimea voted to go with Russia. Of course, the boogie man mentality lying government in the west will tell you different.

As previously stated Ukraine was once called the “Breadbasket of Europe”. When you drive across this beautiful country you will see nothing but miles and miles of cultivated farmland. That is not the case in the Donbass Region. The Donbass Region has several million people. The coalfield there extends across the east to Russian territory, is the fourth largest in Europe, with extractable reserves estimated at over 10 billion tons. The region around the city of Donetsk makes up only 5 percent of Ukraine’s territory. About 10% of Ukraine’s population lives there - but they produce 20% of gross domestic product and about a quarter of Ukraine export volume. The rest of the country is dominated by agriculture.

It is common knowledge that a few elite controls most of the wealth in Ukraine. It is not uncommon to enter into most businesses (even clothing stores) and see a muscular young man dressed in black sitting next to the front door with a machine-gun by his side. The law of the jungle works in Ukraine. The strong devour the weak. My partner and I bought a building, put hundreds of thousands of dollars into it and we fought with the local mafia (government) for 3 years. They used a number of excuses to try and push us out so that they could come in and take our investment and use it for themselves.

I have no doubt that this is what has been happening in the Donbass Region of Ukraine. After America financed the coup there the strong (mafia from the capital city of Kiev) wanted to come into that region and take over the mining industry, factories etc.. No doubt. Ukraine had a population of 50 million+ when I lived there. It would surprise me if they have 30 million people now. The place is corrupt. The economy has gone to the tank since the American financed coup. National observers say that 100,000 people are moving out of the country every month. Ukrainians feel that there only hope for survival is to leave their homeland.

Now, this brings me to our boogieman hysteria that’s being portrayed in the news media and both sides of our government. Who’s the aggressor? Putin or NATO? Do your research and see how NATO is circling Russia with its troops. Anytime Russia has military exercises close to its border it is in the western press that they are the aggressors. If it was not so serious it would be laughable how our government is trying it’s hardest to get into a war with Russia.

The facts are that the USA has not won a serious war since WW2. The truth is that America did not win that war. Actually the Russians did. 37 million Russians gave their lives to win that war. Funny thing is that I never remember my (late) father talking about this when he would get emotional with his patriotic speeches. Actually, I don’t remember being taught in school about Russia’s sacrifice in WW2. Oh yes, we go into small countries and push dictators out thinking that it is America’s interest and we are going to find weapons of mass destruction (cough, cough). But to win a serious war. We have not. So if all of you American patriots enjoy the drumbeats about Russia, Putin and how he’s the boogieman in Ukraine. Maybe or maybe not

Putin is a bad guy. I’m not debating any of that. Who knows? I do know that after all of the crap that he’s been put through by the western world he’s shown that he’s very level headed and refuses to shoot off at the mouth and send threatening tweets in the middle of the night. America should count that as a blessing that is for sure. I keep hearing that Putin was a member of the KGB. WOW. My wife was a Soviet Pioneer as a child. Most Germans were part of Hitler’s army. That was the times. This is 2018. To keep throwing that in Putin’s face is meaningless.

Which is worse? Putin (allegedly) doing the bad things that he’s accused of or America arming the Ukrainians so that they can continue to drop bombs on the civilians every night while we are sleeping soundly in our homes? If you don’t believe me then do research and see the documented videos online that are being put on YouTube by the great people of Donbass Region trying to protect their

homeland from the puppet murderous American financed government from Kiev. If you get your head out of the sand and do research you will see that over 10,000 people have been killed since the USA financed the coup in Ukraine 4 years ago. Even as late as last night during the night some innocent grandmother or child was blown to smithereens by Kiev’s Army while sleeping. Yet not a peep from our government or the press…

Top sources state that America has sent Kiev more rocket launchers that they are planning an all out attack on the civilians of Donbass in the weeks to come. Thank you America for saving the Ukrainian people from awful Putin or should I say thank you America for financing the innocent civilians whose homes are being bombed by some munitions manufacturer here in the USA.

Please God save us all from this madness. Revelation 13:10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Not sure, but this might explain why we have so much unnecessary killings going on in our schools, malls and streets in our country… Makes me wonder.

Steve Wingate
Political Commentator

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Keep Telling Yourself that Jeff Sessons Isn't Compromised.

Jeff Sessions' DOJ Files Appeal to Protect Bill Clinton's Records & Intel of Monica Lewinsky Scandal; Wants Records Kept Secret – True PunditTrue Pundit

by admin

Politics Security

Jeff Sessions’ DOJ Files Appeal to Protect Bill Clinton’s Records & Intel of Monica Lewinsky Scandal; Wants Records Kept Secret

The Swamp.
The Trump administration is again fighting for greater secrecy in a Clinton-focused investigation: this time, the independent counsel probe that explored President Bill Clinton’s relationship with White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
A raft of court records from grand jury-related proceedings related to the investigation have remained secret for two decades, but last month a federal judge — acting on a request from CNN — ruled that the vast majority of the files should be made public.
But early Wednesday, the Justice Department appealed that decision to the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals. The move is likely to delay the release of the request information for months or longer.
The Justice Department had no immediate comment, but court filings indicate that government lawyers made the broad assertion that the court lacks authority to release grand jury records for reasons of “extreme public interest” or any other reason not specifically detailed in federal court rules.
Chief U.S. District Court Judge Beryl Howell disagreed, ruling that the court had “inherent” power to disclose grand jury information for other reasons.
Justice Department attorneys did not object to unsealing some information already made public in a report Independent Counsel Ken Starr sent to Congress in 1998, but Howell said some matters had been so thoroughly aired in the report that there was little point in keeping the related records under wraps.

Sunday, April 22, 2018

The West's Rejection of God Will End in Misery and Terror

"The West has yet to experience a Communist invasion; religion here remains free. But the West’s own historical evolution has been such that today it too is experiencing a drying up of religious consciousness.... the tide of secularism that, from the late Middle Ages onward, has progressively inundated the West. This gradual sapping of strength from within is a threat to faith that is perhaps even more dangerous than any attempt to assault religion violently from without."

“Men Have Forgotten God” – The Templeton Address
by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

More than half a century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of older people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia: Men have forgotten God; that’s why all this has happened.

Since then I have spent well-nigh fifty years working on the history of our Revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies, and have already contributed eight volumes of my own toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval. But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of the ruinous Revolution that swallowed up some sixty million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat: Men have forgotten God; that’s why all this has happened.
What is more, the events of the Russian Revolution can only be understood now, at the end of the century, against the background of what has since occurred in the rest of the world. What emerges here is a process of universal significance. And if I were called upon to identify briefly the principal trait of the entire twentieth century, here too, I would be unable to find anything more precise and pithy than to repeat once again: Men have forgotten God.

The failings of human consciousness, deprived of its divine dimension, have been a determining factor in all the major crimes of this century.

The failings of human consciousness, deprived of its divine dimension, have been a determining factor in all the major crimes of this century. The first of these was World War I, and much of our present predicament can be traced back to it. It was a war (the memory of which seems to be fading) when Europe, bursting with health and abundance, fell into a rage of self-mutilation which could not but sap its strength for a century or more, and perhaps forever. The only possible explanation for this war is a mental eclipse among the leaders of Europe due to their lost awareness of a Supreme Power above them. Only a godless embitterment could have moved ostensibly Christian states to employ poison gas, a weapon so obviously beyond the limits of humanity.

The same kind of defect, the flaw of a consciousness lacking all divine dimension, was manifested after World War II when the West yielded to the satanic temptation of the “nuclear umbrella.” It was equivalent to saying: Let’s cast off worries, let’s free the younger generation from their duties and obligations, let’s make no effort to defend ourselves, to say nothing of defending others-let’s stop our ears to the groans emanating from the East, and let us live instead in the pursuit of happiness. If danger should threaten us, we shall be protected by the nuclear bomb; if not, then let the world burn in Hell for all we care. The pitifully helpless state to which the contemporary West has sunk is in large measure due to this fatal error: the belief that the defense of peace depends not on stout hearts and steadfast men, but solely on the nuclear bomb…

Today’ s world has reached a stage which, if it had been described to preceding centuries, would have called forth the cry: “This is the Apocalypse!”

Yet we have grown used to this kind of world; we even feel at home in it.

Dostoevsky warned that “great events could come upon us and catch us intellectually unprepared.” This is precisely what has happened. And he predicted that “the world will be saved only after it has been possessed by the demon of evil.” Whether it really will be saved we shall have to wait and see: this will depend on our conscience, on our spiritual lucidity, on our individual and combined efforts in the face of catastrophic circumstances. But it has already come to pass that the demon of evil, like a whirlwind, triumphantly circles all five continents of the earth…

By the time of the Revolution, faith had virtually disappeared in Russian educated circles; and amongst the uneducated, its health was threatened.

In its past, Russia did know a time when the social ideal was not fame, or riches, or material success, but a pious way of life. Russia was then steeped in an Orthodox Christianity which remained true to the Church of the first centuries. The Orthodoxy of that time knew how to safeguard its people under the yoke of a foreign occupation that lasted more than two centuries, while at the same time fending off iniquitous blows from the swords of Western crusaders. During those centuries the Orthodox faith in our country became part of the very pattern of thought and the personality of our people, the forms of daily life, the work calendar, the priorities in every undertaking, the organization of the week and of the year. Faith was the shaping and unifying force of the nation.

But in the 17th century Russian Orthodoxy was gravely weakened by an internal schism. In the 18th, the country was shaken by Peter’s forcibly imposed transformations, which favored the economy, the state, and the military at the expense of the religious spirit and national life. And along with this lopsided Petrine enlightenment, Russia felt the first whiff of secularism; its subtle poisons permeated the educated classes in the course of the 19th century and opened the path to Marxism. By the time of the Revolution, faith had virtually disappeared in Russian educated circles; and amongst the uneducated, its health was threatened.

It was Dostoevsky, once again, who drew from the French Revolution and its seeming hatred of the Church the lesson that “revolution must necessarily begin with atheism.” That is absolutely true. But the world had never before known a godlessness as organized, militarized, and tenaciously malevolent as that practiced by Marxism. Within the philosophical system of Marx and Lenin, and at the heart of their psychology, hatred of God is the principal driving force, more fundamental than all their political and economic pretensions. Militant atheism is not merely incidental or marginal to Communist policy; it is not a side effect, but the central pivot.

The 1920’s in the USSR witnessed an uninterrupted procession of victims and martyrs amongst the Orthodox clergy. Two metropolitans were shot, one of whom, Veniamin of Petrograd, had been elected by the popular vote of his diocese. Patriarch Tikhon himself passed through the hands of the Cheka-GPU and then died under suspicious circumstances. Scores of archbishops and bishops perished. Tens of thousands of priests, monks, and nuns, pressured by the Chekists to renounce the Word of God, were tortured, shot in cellars, sent to camps, exiled to the desolate tundra of the far North, or turned out into the streets in their old age without food or shelter. All these Christian martyrs went unswervingly to their deaths for the faith; instances of apostasy were few and far between. For tens of millions of laymen access to the Church was blocked, and they were forbidden to bring up their children in the Faith: religious parents were wrenched from their children and thrown into prison, while the children were turned from the faith by threats and lies…
For a short period of time, when he needed to gather strength for the struggle against Hitler, Stalin cynically adopted a friendly posture toward the Church. This deceptive game, continued in later years by Brezhnev with the help of showcase publications and other window dressing, has unfortunately tended to be taken at its face value in the West. Yet the tenacity with which hatred of religion is rooted in Communism may be judged by the example of their most liberal leader, Krushchev: for though he undertook a number of significant steps to extend freedom, Krushchev simultaneously rekindled the frenzied Leninist obsession with destroying religion.

But there is something they did not expect: that in a land where churches have been leveled, where a triumphant atheism has rampaged uncontrolled for two-thirds of a century, where the clergy is utterly humiliated and deprived of all independence, where what remains of the Church as an institution is tolerated only for the sake of propaganda directed at the West, where even today people are sent to the labor camps for their faith, and where, within the camps themselves, those who gather to pray at Easter are clapped in punishment cells–they could not suppose that beneath this Communist steamroller the Christian tradition would survive in Russia. It is true that millions of our countrymen have been corrupted and spiritually devastated by an officially imposed atheism, yet there remain many millions of believers: it is only external pressures that keep them from speaking out, but, as is always the case in times of persecution and suffering, the awareness of God in my country has attained great acuteness and profundity.

It is here that we see the dawn of hope: for no matter how formidably Communism bristles with tanks and rockets, no matter what successes it attains in seizing the planet, it is doomed never to vanquish Christianity.

The West has yet to experience a Communist invasion; religion here remains free. But the West’s own historical evolution has been such that today it too is experiencing a drying up of religious consciousness. It too has witnessed racking schisms, bloody religious wars, and rancor, to say nothing of the tide of secularism that, from the late Middle Ages onward, has progressively inundated the West. This gradual sapping of strength from within is a threat to faith that is perhaps even more dangerous than any attempt to assault religion violently from without.

Imperceptibly, through decades of gradual erosion, the meaning of life in the West has ceased to be seen as anything more lofty than the “pursuit of happiness, “a goal that has even been solemnly guaranteed by constitutions. The concepts of good and evil have been ridiculed for several centuries; banished from common use, they have been replaced by political or class considerations of short lived value. It has become embarrassing to state that evil makes its home in the individual human heart before it enters a political system. Yet it is not considered shameful to make dally concessions to an integral evil. Judging by the continuing landslide of concessions made before the eyes of our very own generation, the West is ineluctably slipping toward the abyss. Western societies are losing more and more of their religious essence as they thoughtlessly yield up their younger generation to atheism. If a blasphemous film about Jesus is shown throughout the United States, reputedly one of the most religious countries in the world, or a major newspaper publishes a shameless caricature of the Virgin Mary, what further evidence of godlessness does one need? When external rights are completely unrestricted, why should one make an inner effort to restrain oneself from ignoble acts?

Or why should one refrain from burning hatred, whatever its basis–race, class, or ideology? Such hatred is in fact corroding many hearts today. Atheist teachers in the West are bringing up a younger generation in a spirit of hatred of their own society. Amid all the vituperation we forget that the defects of capitalism represent the basic flaws of human nature, allowed unlimited freedom together with the various human rights; we forget that under Communism (and Communism is breathing down the neck of all moderate forms of socialism, which are unstable) the identical flaws run riot in any person with the least degree of authority; while everyone else under that system does indeed attain “equality”–the equality of destitute slaves. This eager fanning of the flames of hatred is becoming the mark of today’s free world. Indeed, the broader the personal freedoms are, the higher the level of prosperity or even of abundance–the more vehement, paradoxically, does this blind hatred become. The contemporary developed West thus demonstrates by its own example that human salvation can be found neither in the profusion of material goods nor in merely making money.
This deliberately nurtured hatred then spreads to all that is alive, to life itself, to the world with its colors, sounds, and shapes, to the human body. The embittered art of the twentieth century is perishing as a result of this ugly hate, for art is fruitless without love. In the East art has collapsed because it has been knocked down and trampled upon, but in the West the fall has been voluntary, a decline into a contrived and pretentious quest where the artist, instead of attempting to reveal the divine plan, tries to put himself in the place of God.

Here again we witness the single outcome of a worldwide process, with East and West yielding the same results, and once again for the same reason: Men have forgotten God.

With such global events looming over us like mountains, nay, like entire mountain ranges, it may seem incongruous and inappropriate to recall that the primary key to our being or non-being resides in each individual human heart, in the heart’s preference for specific good or evil. Yet this remains true even today, and it is, in fact, the most reliable key we have. The social theories that promised so much have demonstrated their bankruptcy, leaving us at a dead end. The free people of the West could reasonably have been expected to realize that they are beset · by numerous freely nurtured falsehoods, and not to allow lies to be foisted upon them so easily. All attempts to find a way out of the plight of today’s world are fruitless unless we redirect our consciousness, in repentance, to the Creator of all: without this, no exit will be illumined, and we shall seek it in vain. The resources we have set aside for ourselves are too impoverished for the task. We must first recognize the horror perpetrated not by some outside force, not by class or national enemies, but within each of us individually, and within every society. This is especially true of a free and highly developed society, for here in particular we have surely brought everything upon ourselves, of our own free will. We ourselves, in our daily unthinking selfishness, are pulling tight that noose…

Our life consists not in the pursuit of material success but in the quest for worthy spiritual growth. Our entire earthly existence is but a transitional stage in the movement toward something higher, and we must not stumble and fall, nor must we linger fruitlessly on one rung of the ladder. Material laws alone do not explain our life or give it direction. The laws of physics and physiology will never reveal the indisputable manner in which the Creator constantly, day in and day out, participates in the life of each of us, unfailingly granting us the energy of existence; when this assistance leaves us, we die. And in the life of our entire planet, the Divine Spirit surely moves with no less force: this we must grasp in our dark and terrible hour.

To the ill-considered hopes of the last two centuries, which have reduced us to insignificance and brought us to the brink of nuclear and non-nuclear death, we can propose only a determined quest for the warm hand of God, which we have so rashly and self-confidently spurned. Only in this way can our eyes be opened to the errors of this unfortunate twentieth century and our bands be directed to setting them right. There is nothing else to cling to in the landslide: the combined vision of all the thinkers of the Enlightenment amounts to nothing.

Our five continents are caught in a whirlwind. But it is during trials such as these that the highest gifts of the human spirit are manifested. If we perish and lose this world, the fault will be ours alone.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, “Godlessness: the First Step to the Gulag”. Templeton Prize Lecture, 10 May 1983 (London).

Source: The Voice Crying in the Wilderness

Monday, April 9, 2018

C. I. Scofield: Scoundrel, Shyster, and Scalawag

Heresy and Apostasy create wounded and sometimes bitter ex-Christians. Out society if full of ex-catholics, and ex-fundamentalists, most who abandon Christianity altogether, wounded from the lies they were told and the scoundrels they were taught were "great men of God."

This excellent piece about the author of the Scofield Reference Bible, Scofield being one of the "lights" of the modern Christian heresy called "Dispensationalism" was written by such a wounded person, she does not identify herself as ex-Christian rather as a "biblical skeptic" she says,  "I am a married mother of three in Wichita. I enjoy writing, learning, cooking, travel, theatre, cinema, and creating a nurturing space for my family. And I am passionate about making the world a fairer place, especially for women and children. After decades of devoting myself to the claims of the Bible, I am now a happy skeptic."  That skepticism produced a very fine article about Scofield.  Really we cannot minimize the effect that the Scoundrel, Shyster, and Scalawag  C.I. Scofield had upon Christians creating first Biblical Fundamentalism (drawing Christian further away from the teaching tradition of the Apostolic and Orthodox Church, further away from the Church itself, further away from what Christians had held in common as Orthodox Christians for two thousand years) and this drawing away created the fertile ground for the Judaizing sects of modern Christianity, the Christian Zionists, and set the stage for people to be blinded by the fate of the pagan state of Israel, totally focused on that Globalist, New World Order State, when Christians were being slaughtered all across the globe, in fact more Christian martyrs were created in the last One Hundred and Twenty Years, than in all of Christian History combined, and frankly the number might actually be TWICE as many as all previous centuries of Christian History combined.

Monday, January 13, 2014

C. I. Scofield: Scoundrel, Shyster, and Scalawag

This colorful rogue is best known today as the editor of a best-selling reference Bible. But when his name appeared in newspapers across the nation after he presided over Dwight L. Moody's funeral in 1899, some Kansas communities took the news as insult added to injury. They remembered how C.I. Scofield, then a lawyer and corrupt government official, had skipped town years before, leaving his creditors in the lurch. When news got around that Scofield had become a minister of the gospel, some of these Kansans pressed him for restitution. According to an article in the Kansas City Journal, "Parson Scofield declared that he is poor and unable to pay."

Indeed, in her 2011 thesis, D. Jean Rushing reports that this antipathy toward Scofield had diminished but little one hundred years later:
In contrast, the Atchison, Kansas community still remembered Mr. Scofield’s reputation as a “scalawag” and his abandonment of his family over a century later. In 1989, Joseph M. Canfield offered his newly published biography The Incredible Scofield and His Book to the Atchison Public Library. The library declined Canfield’s offer with the reply “I don’t think we need his biography. Many Atchison citizens remember what a rascal he was.”      
("From Confederate Deserter to Decorated Veteran Bible Scholar: Exploring the Enigmatic Life of C.I. Scofield1861-1921")

Early History

Cyrus Ingerson Scofield (sometimes misspelled "Schofield) was born in Michigan in 1843. His mother died three months later. Cyrus had several older sisters and was living in Tennessee with one of them when the Civil War broke out. Though only seventeen, young Cy enlisted in the Confederate Army by falsifying his age. His unit saw action in Virginia and Cy had plenty of time to reconsider. After a stay in a Richmond hospital, Cy wrote to the Confederate Secretary of War requesting a discharge because a) he was a minor, b) he was a Northerner, and c) he was in poor health. In September of 1862, Cy was given a certificate of discharge stating he was "an alien friend" of the Confederacy.

What happened next is a mystery. According to some accounts he was later conscripted and deserted to the North where he took an oath of allegiance to the Union. Scofield himself later told a version of the story in which he served to the end of the war (and received the Southern Cross of Honor for bravery displayed at Antietam). In any event, he eventually made his way to St. Louis to live with another sister.

Cyrus' sister Emmaline (also Emeline) had married Sylvester Papin, the son of a prominent French family in St. Louis. Papin, a lawyer, worked for the City Assessor's office and when his young brother-in-law escaped the war, Papin let him apprentice there. And so Cyrus Scofield began his legal education, specializing in issues of property: land grants, titles, and deeds.

Several wealthy and influential French Creole families had tight cultural and financial connections in St. Louis society. The Papins formed part of this circle, as did the widowed Helene LeBeau Cerre, whose daughter caught the eye of young Cyrus Scofield. In 1866, with a dispensation from the Church, eighteen-year-old Leontine Cerre and the non-Catholic Cyrus Scofield were wed in a civil ceremony. Two daughters arrived in quick succession, and were dutifully baptized at churches in Missouri. Abigail was named after Cyrus' mother, and Helene was christened after Leontine's.

Kansas Experience

As Cyrus advanced his legal education, Sylvester Papin sent him across the state line to represent the family in a land grant case. The Scofields, with Leontine's brother Henry, moved to Atchison, Kansas. (Maintaining the lifestyle they had enjoyed in St. Louis, the family had live-in servants, including a ten-year-old black female.) Cyrus continued to make contacts in the political world, catching the attention of prominent politician John J. Ingalls, who sponsored his application to practice law in the state.

Kansas politics was a rough-and-tumble world in those years, riddled with corruption and investigations, but Scofield waded right in and rose to fame quickly. The adaptive young man was elected twice to the Kansas House of Representatives, though from different districts each time. A son, Guy Sylvester, joined the Scofield family in 1872. The next year, Scofield helped John Ingalls get elected to the U.S. Senate. A week after taking his seat in the Senate, Ingalls returned the favor by getting the 29-year-old Scofield appointed U.S. District Attorney for Kansas. Scofield took the oath of office, swearing that he had "never voluntarily borne arms against the United States".

In December 1873, just six months into his new job, Scofield was forced to resign in a cloud of scandal and corruption that involved blackmail, bribery, and possibly embezzlement. Disgraced and in debt, he forged Ingalls' name "to secure funds for himself", a choice that severed that partnership for good. Cyrus and Leontine returned to Missouri with their girls and baby Guy. They were still living with his sister Emmaline, now a wealthy widow, when Guy died of scarlet fever. They buried the toddler in St. Louis in December 1974. After attempts to get legal work in St. Louis came to naught (he was never admitted to the bar in Missouri), Cyrus abandoned his wife and young daughters. By his own account, he had also become a heavy drinker.

Leontine took her little girls back to Kansas. Her mother moved in with them and Leontine went to work: first in a milliner's shop, and later at the public library where she worked for many years. Leontine was known in the community as a cultured woman and a good mother. She raised her daughters as Roman Catholics.

Scofield the Scoundrel

For the next several years, Cyrus was nothing more than a rogue and a scoundrel. In Missouri, he obtained money by forging his sister's name. But he could be far more creative.

In Milwaukee, C.I. Scofield assumed the alias "Charles Ingerson". Posing as a well-heeled cotton plantation owner from Mobile, Alabama, he checked into the Metropolitan Hotel and courted the attentions of a local young beauty--until his landlord had him arrested for vagrancy. Days later he was released, after sweet-talking his unsuspecting fiancee into paying his hotel bill. Two weeks later, he was re-arrested, but this time the young lady's resources were exhausted.

While C.I. was up to no good in Wisconsin, Leontine obtained a legal separation from him in Kansas. The marriage would drag on another six years on paper, with Leontine never getting a penny of support from her husband. At one point, C.I. wrote to Leontine, offering to invest $1300 on behalf of his mother-in-law. He must have been convincing, for Leontine sent him the money. C.I. dutifully sent back documents signed by a fictitious Charles Best. The whole "investment" turned out to be a fraud and the story later made it into the newspapers.

In late 1878, "Cyrus Ingerson" aka "Charles Ingerson" was arrested and jailed in Wisconsin by request of the the St. Louis Chief of Police, who came to personally escort the con-man back to jail in St. Louis to face charges of forgery. Scofield spent six months in jail that time.

Religious Conversion

In November of 1879, the case against Scofield was dismissed. Emmaline paid off some of his debts. And C.I. Scofield found a new shtick: evangelicalism. Details of his religious conversion are unclear, as there are multiple reported accounts. Some mention his time in jail while others credit a client of his [non-existent] law office with introducing him to Jesus. We know that Dwight L. Moody conducted a preaching crusade in St. Louis at that time and Scofield participated. And so began a lifelong partnership. Scofield got involved with Moody's St. Louis YMCA, joined a Congregational church, and quickly obtained a preaching license from the Congregational church association.

His preacher friends drilled Scofield in the latest Protestant Biblical interpretations, particularly those of Anglo-Irish preacher John Nelson Darby. Darby, an ex-lawyer and ex-priest whose radical ideas had started the Plymouth Brethren in the United Kingdom, had visited St. Louis several years previous, spreading his understanding of "dispensations",and prophecy in the Bible. Today Darby is credited with inventing the doctrine of "the Rapture", the idea that Christian believers will suddenly be swept up to heaven ahead of "the Tribulation". With little exposure to alternate points of view, Scofield became a zealous advocate of these new-found and unconventional truths. In no time at all, the recently-converted lawyer was pastoring a church of his own.

In 1881, Leontine Scofield filed for divorce, declaring C.I. an unfit parent. Her now-Protestant husband fought for dismissal, and denied "each and every allegation" in Leontine's petition. When word got back to Kansas that the infamous lawyer was now preaching the gospel, the people he had once represented took his wife's side. The Atchison Globe reported in June of 1881: "C. I. Schofield, who was appointed United States District Attorney for Kansas in 1873, and who turned out worse than any other Kansas official, is now a Campbellite preacher in Missouri. His wife and two children live in Atchison. He contributes nothing to their support except good advice."

Later that summer, a gossip column in an Atchison paper was also picked up by the Topeka Daily Journal:
Cyrus I. Schofield, formerly of Kansas, late lawyer, politician and shyster generally, has come to the surface again, and promises once more to gather around himself that halo of notoriety that has made him so prominent in the past. The last personal knowledge that Kansans have had of this peer among scalawags, was when about four years ago, after a series of forgeries and confidence games he left the state and a destitute family and took refuge in Canada. For a time he kept undercover, nothing being heard of him until within the past two years when he turned up in St. Louis, where he had a wealthy widowed sister living who has generally come to the front and squared up Cyrus’ little follies and foibles by paying good round sums of money. Within the past year, however, Cyrus committed a series of St. Louis forgeries that could not be settled so easily, and the erratic young gentleman was compelled to linger in the St. Louis jail for a period of six months.

Among the many malicious acts that characterized his career, was one peculiarly atrocious, that has come under our personal notice. Shortly after he left Kansas, leaving his wife and two children dependent upon the bounty of his wife’s mother, he wrote his wife that he could invest some $1,300 of her mother’s money, all she had, in a manner that would return big interest. After some correspondence he forwarded them a mortgage, signed and executed by one Chas. Best, purporting to convey valuable property in St. Louis. Upon this, the money was sent to him. Afterwards the mortgages were found to be base forgeries, no such person as Charles Best being in existence, and the property conveyed in the mortgage fictitious…
Among the many malicious acts that characterized his career, was one peculiarly atrocious, that has come under our personal notice. Shortly after he left Kansas, leaving his wife and two children dependent upon the bounty of his wife’s mother, he wrote his wife that he could invest some $1,300 of her mother’s money, all she had, in a manner that would return big interest. After some correspondence he forwarded them a mortgage, signed and executed by one Chas. Best, purporting to convey valuable property in St. Louis. Upon this, the money was sent to him. Afterwards the mortgages were found to be base forgeries, no such person as Charles Best being in existence, and the property conveyed in the mortgage fictitious…
In the latter part of his confinement, Schofield, under the administration of certain influences, became converted, or professedly so. After this change of heart his wealthy sister came forward and paid his way out by settling the forgeries, and the next we hear of him he is ordained as a minister of the Congregational church, and under the chaperonage of Rev. Goodell, one of the most celebrated divines of St. Louis, he causes a most decided sensation.  ...Schofield represent[ed] first that his wife had obtained a decree of divorce. When the falsity of this story was ascertained by inquiries of our district clerk, he started on another that a divorce would be obtained, that he loved his children better than his life, but that the incompatibility of his wife’s temper and her religious zeal in the Catholic church was such that he could not possibly live with her.
A representative of the Patriot met Mrs. Schofield today, and that little lady denies, as absurd, such stories. There was never any domestic clouds in their homes. They always lived harmoniously and pleasant. As to her religion, she was no more zealous than any other church member. She attended service on the sabbath, and tried to live as becomes a Christian woman and mother. It was the first time she had ever heard the objection raised by him. As to supporting herself and the children, he has done nothing, said the little woman. Once in a great while, say every few months, he sends the children about $5, never more. “I am employed with A. L. de Gignac & Co., and work for their support and mine. As soon as Mr. Schofield settles something on the children to aid me in supporting them and giving them an education, I will gladly give him the matrimonial liberty he desires. I care not who he marries, or when, but I do want him to aid me in giving our little daughters the support and education they should have.”    
(Topeka Daily Journal, August 27, 1881)
On to Texas
This article did not apparently circulate as far as the Texas newspapers. In 1883, C.I. Scofield was invited to pastor First Congregational Church (now renamed Scofield Memorial Church) in Dallas, Texas. In Dallas, he was ordained by a regional church association. After meeting church member Hettie (van) Wart(z), C.I. also decided to wrap up his divorce from Leontine, who had again filed for divorce. He had apparently changed his own definition of marriage, concluding that a marriage between a Catholic (pagan, as far as he was concerned) and a Protestant was not a Christian marriage, anyway. This time he agreed to let Leontine have full custody, but she had to give up all claim to child support or alimony. 
Hettie was also from Michigan, where she had attended teacher's college at Michigan State Normal School in Ypsilanti. Hettie's father had died years earlier, but her mother had married a domineering older man who was both physically and verbally abusive to his new wife and stepdaughters, to the point of threatening their lives. Three months after C.I.'s divorce from Leontine was finalized, he and Hettie were wed. After three years in Texas, Hettie's mother returned to Michigan and won a divorce suit against her horrid husband. Hettie gave birth to a son, Noel Paul Scofield, in Michigan in 1888. 

In 1886, Scofield hosted Moody's Dallas crusade. And he became a speaker in the Bible conference movement. Two years later, he published a treatise on premillenial dispensational theology. Later, his teaching on "dispensationalism" and a "pre-trib" ("any-minute") rapture would be disseminated across North America as notes in his famous reference Bible. Some of Scofield's views on the "end times" would one day form a theological justification for Tim LaHaye's popular Left Behind series as well as the Religious Right's support of American Zionism.

After meeting Hudson Taylor, famed missionary to China, C.I. Scofield founded the Central American Mission (later CAM International, now Camino Global) which began by sending a missionary couple to Costa Rica in 1890. He also helped start Lake Charles College in Lousiana. And he offered a Bible Correspondence Course which was later taken over by Moody Bible Institute. Today, Moody still offers certificates in the Scofield Bible curriculum.

Professional Bible Teacher

In 1895, Scofield moved to Moody's Massachusetts headquarters to direct the Northfield Bible Training School for a while. He also pastored Moody's church in Northfield. According to Scofield, he himself educated Moody on the subject of Bible prophecy. Never having studied Biblical languages, Scofield relied on a Greek lexicon for personal study. By then he was styling himself the "Rev. C.I. Scofield, D.D.", though he had never attended college in his life and there is no record of any institution conferring on him even an honorary degree.
Scofield presided at Dwight Moody's funeral in 1899. After that, he divided his time between Dallas, Michigan, travel abroad, his property in New Hampshire, and New York City, where he maintained membership in the exclusive Lotos Club, a very secular association with the aim of promoting the arts and "learned professions". When he was in Dallas, Scofield was active in the local organization of Confederate veterans, and was sometimes called on to give addresses extolling the virtue and faith of Confederate heroes. As Scofield played up his experience in the ranks (and kept quiet about his Yankee origins), the Dallas community soon accepted the popular Bible teacher as a "Confederate soldier and in every respect a distinctly Southern man in his sentiments".

By the time Scofield left Massachusetts, he was already planning a new edition of the Bible, with extensive interpretive notes of his own--the first study Bible of its type. Ardent evangelical premillenialist Lyman Stewart, president of Union Oil and sponsor of the series The Fundamentals, provided financial backing for Scofield's undertaking. Even with Hettie's assistance, the project took several years and numerous trips abroad for research and collaboration with scholars at Oxford. Some even credit Scofield with coining the term "Judeo-Christian" during this period; its first usage dates to approximately 1899.

Oxford University Press published the first Scofield Reference Bible in 1909. Scofield and his editors made revisions for the 1917 edition. One of these was the inclusion of suggested dates for Biblical events, including James Ussher's placement of Creation around 4004 BC. Scofield's note suggesting there could have been an indeterminate chronological "gap" between the events related in the first two verses of Genesis puts him at odds with modern fundamentalist believers.

Scofield's Legacy

For the last two decades of Scofield's life, he was a mentor for fellow lay theologian and Moody supporter Lewis Sperry Chafer, with whom he founded the Philadelphia School of the Bible. When Scofield's health declined (rumors swirled among his colleagues that Scofield abused prescription alcohol), Chafer replaced him in the pulpit in Dallas and went on to found Dallas Theological Seminary. 

Scofield was estranged from all three of his children by the time of his death. His estate passed to both Hettie and Noel, with no mention of the daughters from his first marriage. Noel Scofield lived in New York until his death in 1962 and held the copyright to his father's Bible after his father's death. Noel refused to give interviews regarding his father and had no later involvement with the Dispensational movement.

Abigail and Helen Scofield both became teachers. Abigail taught at an elementary school, while her sister taught French at a girls' school in Kansas City. Abigail married Edward Kellogg, a dentist, in 1902. They later moved to California for Edward's health. There Abigail worked as a librarian and was popular in her community. Helen also married, but neither sister had children. When their father's reference Bible was published, the Catholic women who were his daughters received copies as "tokens of his love". Though they received no acknowledgement in his official biography in 1920, Scofield did maintain a correspondence with his adult daughters.

Leontine referred to herself as a widow after her divorce. She retired from the library in 1916 and passed away in 1936; her grave is in the Mt. Calvary Catholic cemetery in Atchison, Kansas. After Helen's husband died in 1941, Abigail, also widowed by then, returned to Kansas where the sisters lived together until their deaths in consecutive months in 1958.

Meanwhile, the annotated Scofield Reference Bible became a bestseller. Dispensational fundamentalism's favorite Bible remains in print today, having undergone many updates and revisions over the decades. Scofield's Bible notes strongly influenced the life and worldview of Jerry Falwell, who later guided the American religious right.

Volumes have been written about the numerous discrepancies in Scofield's official biography, written by Charles Trumbull. Biographer Joseph Canfield, who was raised under the strong influence of Scofield, Moody,and Darby and eventually came to view Dispensationalism as a cult, called attention to many of these discrepancies in his work, which he tried to donate to the Atchison Public Library, as we have seen. 
Throughout his life, Cyrus I. Scofield proved a resilient and adaptive man who not lack for ambition. His temperament allowed him to always keep moving forward, undeterred by and unchained to past errors. Whatever else, he was, Scofield was a self-made, and frequently re-made, man. 
"But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, 
he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel."  
1 Timothy 5:8

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